Too Much Heaven: A Brief Look Back at 1979

With the new year starting, it is now forty years since 1979. Forty is a biblical number, which is fitting because 1979 was a year in which religious belief became decisively political. Some of these events are still well remembered: Iran’s Islamic Revolution, the Christmas Eve invasion of Afghanistan by the Soviet Union, the Camp David Accords between Jimmy Carter, Anwar Sadat, and Menachem Begin. Other key events however are often forgotten, so that 1979 does not usually get the acknowledgment it deserves as being a year of unmatched religious and political action.

The year began with the resumption of diplomatic relations between the US and China, on New Year’s Day, ending three decades of formal estrangement between the two countries. This was followed by Deng Xiaoping visiting the White House at the end of the month, the first time a Communist leader of China had ever made such a trip. The new relationship had an immediate political impact when, on January 7th, the Khmer Rouge regime in Cambodia fell to the invading Communist Vietnamese. Five weeks after that, China invaded Vietnam, launching a short but brutal war against  Vietnamese forces that had been fighting the US military only six years earlier.

According to Wikipedia: “On January 1, 1979, Chinese Vice-premier Deng Xiaoping visited the United States for the first time and told American president Jimmy Carter: “The little child [Vietnam] is getting naughty, it’s time he got spanked”. On February 15, the first day that China could have officially announced the termination of the 1950 Sino-Soviet Treaty of Friendship, Alliance and Mutual Assistance, Deng Xiaoping declared that China planned to conduct a limited attack on Vietnam. The reason cited for the attack was to support China’s ally, the Khmer Rouge of Cambodia, in addition to the mistreatment of Vietnam’s ethnic Chinese minority and the Vietnamese occupation of the Spratly Islands which were claimed by China. To prevent Soviet intervention on Vietnam’s behalf, Deng warned Moscow the next day that China was prepared for a full-scale war against the Soviet Union; in preparation for this conflict, China put all of its troops along the Sino-Soviet border on an emergency war alert, set up a new military command in Xinjiang, and even evacuated an estimated 300,000 civilians from the Sino-Soviet border. In addition, the bulk of China’s active forces (as many as one-and-a-half million troops) were stationed along China’s border with the Soviet Union”.

While the political importance of China and America re-establishing a relationship is obvious, its religious significance tends to be overlooked. It has however helped lead to one of the largest increases in any religion in modern history: the adoption of Christianity by many tens of millions of Chinese since the 1970s. In 1979 China’s Three-Self Patriotic Movement church was legalized by the Chinese government. It and many other much smaller churches have been so successful in the decades since that today China and America have probably the two largest Protestant populations in the world. China’s overall Christian population is difficult to estimate, but 100 million is a common guess.

Of course, it was in the Middle East where the biggest religious and political upheaval in 1979 took place. In Iran, the Ayatollah came to power on February 11th, the Shah having fled to Egypt three weeks earlier. In a foreshadowing of the larger hostage-taking that would occur in Iran at the end of the year, on February 14ththe US ambassador was kidnapped and killed in Kabul, Afghanistan, while on the same day Iranian militants temporarily took control of the US embassy in Tehran, kidnapping a Marine there.

On March 26, the Egypt-Israel Peace Treaty was signed. This was an event of great significance, considering that the two countries had fought four wars against one another in the preceding three decades, yet have not fought a single war against one another in the four decades since. Israel returned the Sinai Desert to Egypt as part of the deal, while Egypt became the first Arab state to recognize Israel. The three men involved in the peace deal, Jimmy Carter, Anwar Sadat, and Menachem Begin, were at the time the three most religiously committed political leaders of their respective countries, generations, and faiths.

The month ended on a less peaceful note in a different arena of religious and political conflict: Britain. On March 30 Airey Neave, the Tory party’s Shadow Secretary of State for Northern Ireland, was assassinated outside of the British Parliament by a car bomb planted by Irish militants. The assassination took place just two days after a no-confidence vote had brought down a Labour government. Margaret Thatcher was elected Britain’s first female PM a month later.

This assassination would be followed by an even larger attack later in the year. On August 27[1], the Provisional Irish Republican Army killed eighteen British soldiers with two roadside bombs in Northern Ireland, while on the same day killing Lord Mountbatten (an uncle of Prince Phillip, who had formerly been head of the Royal Navy, head of the Armed Forces, and Viceroy of India), his grandson, and two others by planting a bomb on his boat[2].

A month later, Ireland would host its own biggest religious event in decades, when the Pope visited the island. The Pope was welcomed by a crowd estimated to include 2.7 million people, nearly the entire population of the Republic of Ireland[3].

This however was not the Pope’s most important trip abroad in 1979, nor the one to attract the largest crowds. John Paul II, who had only become Pope at the end of 1978 (a rare “year of three popes”), was the first non-Italian Pope in 450 years. He was, even more importantly, Polish, at a time when Poland was the largest country in the Soviet-led Warsaw Pact. The Pope’s visit to Poland in June of 1979, often referred to as the nine days that changed the world, was the first trip by a Pope to a Communist country. It played a meaningful role in the rise of the Polish Solidarity movement, and so in turn arguably helped end the Cold War.

The Pope’s influence also attracted enemies. When, at the end of 1979, the Pope was visiting Turkey, a young man named Mehmet Ali Agca, who was then beginning a life sentence in prison for killing the editor of a liberal Turkish newspaper earlier that year, escaped from jail and fled to Bulgaria. Two years later, Agca would shoot the Pope in St. Peter’s Square. Given Bulgaria’s position in the Warsaw Pact and the role that Pope John Paull II played in Cold War politics, many people speculate that the Soviet Union was behind this attack in some way[4].

Acga would later claim that a reason for the shooting was that the Pope had (according to Acga) orchestrated the siege of the Grand Mosque of Mecca, a siege which was taking place when Acga made his jail break in November of 1979. This siege, which lasted for two weeks at the holiest site in Islam, involved tens of thousands of hostages[5], several hundred gunmen, and one false messiah. It took place on the first day of the new millennium of the Islamic calendar (1400 A.H.), during the annual Hajj pilgrimage. Saudi forces finally ended the siege after a number of failed attempts and hundreds of deaths, by secretly enlisting the help of France, which sent three of its Special Forces soldiers to Mecca. They quickly converted to Islam in order to enter the holy city, then used gas to sedate the gunmen, who by then had taken refuge in the catacombs beneath the Mosque.

The siege arguably had a major impact on Saudi culture and foreign policy, and a direct legacy in future events such as the emergence of Al Qaeda. It is a sad, fascinating story worth reading about, one that is often forgotten due to the Iranian hostage crisis, which had begun several weeks earlier and was consuming much of America’s attention instead. The siege remains an overlooked subject within the Muslim world as well, in part  because the Saudis have been successful at hushing it up.

At the time, the siege had a number of immediate consequences, owing partly to confusion as to who had orchestrated it. As we have already seen, Acga claimed the Pope was involved. Many others believed that the US was behind the siege. This resulted in the destruction of US embassies by mobs in Libya and Pakistan on December 3. Others believed Shia revolutionaries in Iran were behind the siege. This may have led to an uprising in the Eastern Province of Saudi Arabia, where the country’s Shia minority population lives and most Saudi oil is located. People there had been attempting to celebrate Ashura on November 25, a major Shia holiday prohibited in Saudi Arabia.

Shia-Sunni political relationships were also deteriorating elsewhere in the Middle East in 1979, part of a process that helped lead to the most deadly war in the recent history of the region, the Iran-Iraq War, the following year. At the start of the year Iraq and Syria had been discussing the possibility of unifying their armed forces and merging into a single state[6], to counter Egypt’s new relationship with the US and Israel. The Shia Islamic revolution in Iran however created the possibility of a closer relationship between Iran and Syria. Syria’s government, led by Hafez al- Assad and the country’s minority Allawite (a branch of Shia Islam, sort of) coastal elite, was at the time fighting Sunni groups such as the Syrian Muslim Brotherhood. Syria also had interests in the Lebanese Civil War (1975-1990), a religious sectarian war in which Shia forces – a few years later emerging as the Party of God, Hezzbolah – were being energized by the Iranian revolution as well as by Israel’s invasion and subsequent withdrawal from Shia-inhabited South Lebanon in 1978.

In Iraq the reverse situation existed. The Iranian revolution frightened Iraq’s Sunni elite, in part because a majority of Iraq’s population were disenfranchised Shia. This may have led Saddam Hussein, then vice president of Iraq, to overthrow his elder cousin Ahmed Hassan al-Bakr, the president, on July 16, 1979. A week later Saddam carried out a public purge of Iraqi politicians, claiming they had been plotting with Syria to overthrow the government of Iraq. The following April, he ordered the execution of Iraq’s Grand Ayatollah Muhammad Baqir al Sadr (whose son-in-law, the cleric Muqtada al Sadr, is today arguably the most influential politician in Iraq), along with al Sadr’s sister Amina, before beginning an eight-year war against the ayatollahs in Iran in the fall.

The year ended with the Soviet invasion of Afghanistan on Christmas Eve[7]. This was followed two days later by the Soviets killing their former ally, Communist Afghan President Hafizulla Amin[8]. US president Jimmy Carter then signed the order for the CIA to provide lethal aid to the Afghan mujahedeen. Most of this aid was facilitated by the Pakistani regime of Zia ul Haq, who came to power in a coup at the end of 1977, oversaw the execution of Pakistan’s previous leader Zulfikar Ali Bhutto in April 1979, and would, more than any other figure, be responsible for transforming the Pakistani state from secular to theocratic. The decade-long resistance of the mujahedeen against the Soviets and their allies would result in the deaths of perhaps a million people.

Thus it can be seen that 1979 was also a turning point in the extremely violent Cold War. From a time of “national malaise” in the US (to reference the famous speech by Carter that year[9]), which was dealing with an energy crisis, a hostage crisis, and recent memories of Vietnam[10], 1979 would set in motion forces that would lead to a US victory in the Cold War ten years later. But then, it would also lead the US to its wars in Iraq and Afghanistan, at the start of another new millennium.

1979 was significant because of its mix of religion and politics, but that mix was obviously was not new at the time, and has not gone away since. What may be more relevant is that the events of 1979 helped to shape the views of a generation of people who, today having reached their fifties, sixties, and seventies, can now shape events themselves[11]. Perhaps this has contributed to the fact that American relationships with Iran and Russia remain hostile just like they were in 1979, while American relationships with countries like China, Saudi Arabia, and Egypt remain cooperative just like they were in 1979. True, there are signs that some of these relationships may be beginning to change. But for today at least, 1979 remains a guide worth remembering.

Notes:

[1]This attack took place just as a public debate over whether or not it was appropriate to satirize religion was taking place in Britain, as ten days earlier the Monty Python movie The Life of Brian was released. The movie was banned in the Republic of Ireland until 1987.

[2]Another prominent figure assassinated in 1979 was Park Chung-hee, who had been the president of South Korea since 1963, first coming to power in a military coup in 1961. He was shot by his own close friend, the head of Korea’s intelligence service. This in turn led to a series of coups in South Korea in 1979 and 1980. Park’s daughter was recently president from 2013 to 2017, but was then impeached, and served four years in prison on corruption charges.

[3]Two weeks before the Pope’s visit, Ireland passed the Health Act, which legalized the selling of contraception for the purposes of family planning. China then said I’ll raise you one better, launching, in effect, mandatory contraception: 1979 was the year the one-child policy was implemented.

[4]Actually, Agca himself later claimed the KGB was involved. But he has a track record of making untrue, self-aggrandizing statements, so this does not prove anything decisively.

[5]Most of whom were released at the beginning of the siege. There were an estimated 50,000 pilgrims in the Mosque to begin with, but only a relatively small percentage of them were kept hostage during the siege’s two-week duration.

[6]Like Syria and Egypt had done from 1958 to 1961.

[7]Though not in Orthodox countries like Russia, where Christmas is on January 7.

[8]He was not the only Amin to be ousted from power in 1979. Uganda’s Idi Amin (no relation) was removed too, by an invading Tanzanian army.

[9]Though Carter never actually used the word malaise in the “malaise speech”.

[10]At the 1979 Academy Awards, The Deer Hunter won Best Picture while Jon Voight and Jane Fonda won Best Actor and Best Actress for Coming Home. Both were films about Vietnam. Apocalypse Now then similarly went on to win the top prize at the Cannes Film Festival in 1979 (but was snubbed in favour of Kramer vs Kramer at the Oscars in 1980).

[11]In 1979, Donald Trump started building Trump Tower. Bill Clinton was elected governor of Arkansas at the age of 31. An 18-year-old Barack Obama moved to the US mainland to attend a liberal arts college in Los Angeles. Xi Jinping finished his degree in chemical engineering, as a “Worker-Peasant-Soldier student” in Beijing. Angela Merkel too was becoming a chemist in a Communist state, having finished her physics degree at the end of 1978 in Berlin. (East Germany would soon after become a home to Vladimir Putin as well, in 1984. He was assigned to Dresden as a member of the KGB, which he joined in 1975 at 22 years old). Shinzo Abe finished his degree at the University of Southern California in 1979. Narendra Modi graduated from the University of Delhi in 1978 and began working for the Hindu nationalist paramilitary organization, the RSS, in 1979. Jeremy Corbyn entered politics as a local councillor in 1979; Boris Johnson, who recently beat Corbyn with the biggest vote share in any UK election since 1979, was (no surprises here) at Eton.

Additional notes:

  • In 1979, Mother Teresa was awarded the Nobel Peace Prize
  • China has not really fought in a war since Vietnam in 1979
  • The Taiwan Relations Act was passed in the United States, and remains in effect today
  • From a recent article in Week in China magazine: “The handshake between Deng Xiaoping and Muhammad Ali in December 1979 was a ground-shaking moment in both sport and geopolitics. China had just reestablished diplomatic ties with the United States and the boxing superstar was visiting Beijing as a special envoy for then American leader Jimmy Carter. His job was to persuade the Chinese to skip the Moscow Olympics, which was scheduled for the following year. They did just that but sent a large delegation to the Los Angeles Games four years later – the first time for decades they had participated at the Olympics in a competitive and practical sense (a small squad of athletes made a symbolic appearance in Helsinki 1952). The message from Beijing seemed clear. China was turning away from the Soviet Union and more towards the US as it started to usher in a period of economic reforms and more openness to the outside world. Beijing even lifted a domestic ban on boxing as well.”
  • The Three Mile Island nuclear accident, the most significant in US history, occurred in March, 1979.
  • The other major area of political conflict, Cold War rivalry, and religious activity was Central America, where wars in El Salvador, Guatemala, and Nicaragua were taking place around this time. A key event in the El Salvador civil war (1979-1992) was the assassination of Archbishop Oscar Romero, which took place while he was at mass in March 1980, a day after he had publicly asked Salvadoran soldiers not to carry out orders to kill civilians. In Nicaragua, meanwhile, where the Sandinistras overthrew the Somoza government in 1979, they did so with the support of the country’s Catholic clergy, an unusual – and short-lived – alliance between a left-wing revolutionary movement and the Church.
  • The Second Yemenite War was fought in 1979 between North Yemen and South Yemen, with various outside powers participating on each side. The war began following the assassinations, only two days apart, of the heads of states of both the North and South in July 1978. Ali Abdullah Saleh, who took over as president of North Yemen following the first of these assassinations, would later become the leader of a re-unified Yemen in 1990. Saleh would preside over a further civil war in 1994, and eventually be forced out of office in 2011 after the Arab Spring. He then became involved in yet another civil war, which began in 2014 and continues today. He was killed in the war at the end of 2017.
  • The 1970s was also the key decade for one of the major religious trends that has been taking place in the world in recent generations, namely the emergence of evangelicalism – and the relative decline in Catholicism – in Latin America, especially in Central America and Brazil.
  • In December 1978, Argentinian military forces attempted to land on three remote, disputed islands Argentina shares with Chile at the southern tip of South America, but had to call off the landing because of bad weather. The Pope was then brought in to resolve the dispute, which was only successfully accomplished after Argentina’s military government lost power following its Falklands War with Britain in 1982 (which was fought over similarly southerly islands). As a result of this dispute, Chile supported Britain in the Falklands War. The dictatorship in Argentina lasted from 1976 to 1983.
  • 1979 may have been the peak year for energy price inflation in the United States
  • In Turkey, according to an article in New/Lines Magazine, “In 1980, after a decade of near civil war between left and right, the military carried out a violent coup and propagated the Turkish-Islamic Synthesis as a means of uniting the country. Three years later, the former World Bank economist and conservative, Turgut Ozal, became prime minister. This was the moment that neo-Ottomanism went from the mosque and the tea house to the government. Ozal’s Motherland Party (ANAP) represented — as Ozturk explains — the “merger of all the different colours of Turkey’s right-wing political tradition: conservatives, nationalists, and Islamists.”
  • In Israel, Menachem Begin’s Likud party came to power in 1977, ending three decades in office by leftist parties, which had governed since the country’s independence from Britain in 1948. Likud has been in power for roughly 28 of the 45 years since then, and right-wing parties generally have been in power for 35 of those years. Likud’s current leader, Benjamin Netanyahu, was Prime Minister for 15 years, from 1996-1999 and then from 2009-2021, narrowly beating David Ben Gurion’s previous record as the longest-serving Israeli leader. In 1979 Netanyahu was working at Bain Capital in the US, where he was a friend of his coworker Mitt Romney. Three years earlier, in 1976, when Netanyahu was in his final year as a student at MIT,  Netanyahu’s older brother Yonatan led the infamous raid on Entebbe in Idi Amin’s Uganda (a regime which lasted until 1979), and was the only one of the 100 Israeli commandos involved who was killed.
  • Anwar Sadat, who, after ordering the surprise invasion of Israel on Yom Kippur (and Ramadan) in 1973, broke ground visiting Jerusalem in 1977 (just after Likud came to power) and signed the peace accords in 1978 and 1979, was assassinated in 1981, at an annual victory parade celebrating Egypt’s invasion of the Sinai in that earlier 1973 war. Hosni Mubarak, who as vice-president was sitting next to Sadat during the assassination, then become Egypt’s leader for the following three decades. Mubarak’s (brief) successor, Mohammad Morsi, joined the Muslim Brotherhood in 1979. (Morsi also married his cousin that year). His current successor, Abdel Fattah el-Sisi, first became a military officer (like Mubarak, Sadat, and Sadat’s predecessor Gamal Abdel Nasser had all been) in 1977.
  • In the roundup of hundreds of suspected religious extremists or alleged enemies of the state that followed Sadat’s assassination, one of the men arrested was a recent medical school graduate and Muslim Brotherhood member, Ayman al-Zawahiri, who had that same year worked at a Red Crescent hospital treating refugees in the border areas of north-west Pakistan. He would later become second to Osama Bin Laden in Al Qaeda. It is not clear whether or not he is still alive, but he would be 70 years old now if he is. Al-Zawahiri was also a supporter of the “Blind Sheik”, Omar Abdel-Rahman, who had issued a fatwa sanctioning Sadat’s murder and who, like Zawahiri, would be jailed for three years following the assassination. Abdel-Rahman would later be involved in attacks such as the 1993 World Trade Centre bombing, the 1994 attack on Egypt’s most famous writer, Naguib Mafouz (for his very readable, allegorical novel about Abrahamic religions and modernity, Children of the Alley), the murder of extremist Israeli politician and rabbi Meir Kahane in New York City in 1990, and the massacre of dozens of tourists visiting Luxor in 1997.
  • Other events, notably the Siege of the Grand Mosque in Mecca in 1979, were also fundamental to the later creation of Al Qaeda. Arguably, the 9-11 attacks were themselves prefigured in the 1970s. In September 1970, four airplanes in Europe were hijacked on the same day by the Popular Front for the Liberation of Palestine, with three flown to Jordan and the fourth, an El Al plane, unsuccessfully hijacked as the pilot threw the plane into a nosedive. A day later a fifth plane was hijacked and flown to Jordan, the non-Jewish hostages on the planes were released, and the Black September war began. In 1979, the Mossad assassinated the alleged organizer of the militant group Black September, Ali Hassan Salameh (the “Red Prince”), who was claimed to be behind attacks such as those at the Munich Olympics in 1972 and the assassination of Jordanian Prime Minister Wasfi Tal (who had presided over the Black September War) in 1971.
  • Just as the multiple coordinated airplane hijackings in 1970 and the attempt at destroying the World Trade Centre in 1993 both occurred in the context of the Cold War and 1970s Israeli-Arab conflicts (albeit indirectly so, in the case of the World Trade Centre attack), rising ethnic and religious tensions between the predominantly Hindu Tamil and Buddhist Sinhalese in Sri Lanka in the 1970s arguably led to the first post-WWII case of frequent suicide bombing, and the introduction of techniques such as the suicide vest and female suicide bombers, during the country’s long civil war that began in 1983. Two of these attacks, in 1996 and 1997, killed dozens of people in the World Trade Centre in Colombo, Sri Lanka’s tallest building. Around the same time, the deadly 1983 Beirut barracks truck bombing, killing American and French forces in the largest non-nuclear explosion since the end of WWII, was also a key event in the reemergence of politically and religiously motivated suicide attacks, and might have contributed to the view within Al Qaeda that Western militaries might retreat from the region if aggressively attacked.
  • All of the longest lasting presidencies in the world today began in 1979, in  Africa: Angola’s Jose Eduardo dos Santos (who finally left office in 2017), Teodoro Obiang Nguema Mbasogo of Equatorial Guinea (still in power), and Denis Sassou Nguesso of the Republic of the Congo (although with a brief stint out of office from 1993-1997)
  • In Iraqi Kurdistan, Massoud Barzani became the head of the Kurdish Democratic Party in 1979, and survived an assassination attempt in Vienna that year. Among other things, he would later be a central figure in the Iraqi Kurdish secession referendum in 2017.
  • In the US, Baptist minister Jerry Fallwell Sr. founded the Moral Majority in 1979, a “key step in the formation of the New Christian Right” (according to Wikipedia).
  • The “Satanic Panic” also began in the United States in 1979, following a series of three murders that took place in Fall River, Massachusetts
  • In the Mormon church, the Revelation on Priesthood, announced in October 1978,
    “reversed a long-standing policy excluding men of black African descent from the priesthood”
  • Cult activity in the United States also reached one of its high points in the late 1970s.
    The main example of this is the “Jonestown massacre” in Guyana in November 1978, involving Jim Jones’ San Fransisco-based People’s Temple, in which over 900 people  were either killed or committed suicide with poison and American Congressman Leo Ryan was murdered.  But there were other prominent cases too, such as the Rajneesh movement (“Rajneeshpuram” was founded in Oregon in 1981), or the Nation of Yahweh, founded by Hulon Mitchell Jr., aka Yahweh ben Yahweh, in Florida in 1979. (“The mayor of Miami, Xavier Suárez, declared ‘Yahweh ben Yahweh Day’ on October 7, 1990, a month before Yahweh’s indictment for alleged crimes”). The Nation of Islam also experienced a revival of sorts at the end of the 1970s, under the newfound leadership of Louis Farrakhan.
  • There was pushback against cult activity in these years too, notably the 1978-1979 lawsuit United States v. Mary Sue Hubbard et al., which ended in convictions of high-ranking members of the Church of Scientology, and the 1978-1979 Congressional investigation of The Unification Church of the United States
  • The late 1970s was an important time for the modern youth religions of superheroes, sci-fi-fantasy stories, and sports stars. 1977-1983 was Star Wars. 1978 was the first big superhero movie, Superman. (Marlon Brando played the heavenly Jor-El, a year before playing Kurtz in Apocalypse Now and George Lincoln Rockwell in the sequel to Roots).  1977-1980 was the first trilogy of Tolkien film adaptations, and 1979 was the publication of Tolkien’s mythological cycle The Silmarillion. 1979 was Ridley Scott’s Alien and the first Star Trek movie, and the publication of Hitchhiker’s Guide to the Galaxy. In sports, 1979 was the rookie year of Magic Johnson (the start of the Showtime Lakers) and Larry Bird, Wayne Gretzky, and base-stealing god Rickey Henderson.  It was also the first year the NBA added a three-point line. In boxing, it was the last year in which Muhammad Ali held a championship belt – he won it at the end of 1978 in what was, at the time, the highest-attendance boxing match in history. Sylvester Stallone, among others, was sitting ringside at that match; 1979 was also the year Rocky Balboa won his first fictional championship belt.
  • An American religion that is perhaps even bigger than sports or superheroes is that of pickup trucks and SUVs. The Ford F-150, first produced in 1948, has been the best selling vehicle in the United States since 1981, and the best selling pickup truck since 1977. 
  • Joe Biden became a senator in 1973. (He was then the sixth-youngest-ever senator. Now he is the oldest ever president). According to Wikipedia: “In his first decade in the Senate, Biden focused on arms control. After Congress failed to ratify the SALT II Treaty signed in 1979 by Soviet general secretary Leonid Brezhnev and President Jimmy Carter, Biden met with Soviet Foreign Minister Andrei Gromyko to communicate American concerns and secured changes that addressed the Senate Foreign Relations Committee’s objections. When the Reagan administration wanted to interpret the 1972 SALT I treaty loosely to allow development of the Strategic Defense Initiative (aka Star Wars), Biden argued for strict adherence to the treaty. He received considerable attention when he excoriated Secretary of State George Shultz at a Senate hearing for the Reagan administration’s support of South Africa despite its continued policy of apartheid“.
  • The Vela incident also occurred in 1979, which might have involved South Africa, or  perhaps other countries such as Israel, Pakistan, India, or France, testing nuclear weapons

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